Validating minority cultures in public education
In the most recent edition of New Left Review (Jan-Feb 2009), Francis Mulhern considers these problems by way of a retrospective glance at Raymond Williams’ famous work, Culture and Society (1961).Mulhern argues that Williams’ theory of culture, Marxist in its emphasis on class formation, has stood the test of time.The first important such theory, according to Mulhern, is literary criticism, which has worn a number of political masks, from the conservatism of New Humanism to the Marxism of the Frankfurt School.This mode of analysis understands culture as “high,” as standing above the barbarous, unrefined masses, as a true expression of the best a society has to offer, usually thought to be rooted in the universal.
Although rounded numbers are displayed, the figures are based on unrounded estimates. The number of White students decreased from 28.3 million in 2004 to 24.9 million in 2014.
This is also an intellectual historical problem in that, whereas culture is constantly theorized, perhaps over-theorized—every modern mode of thought involves a cultural theory—rarely are the origins and trajectory of the word “culture” studied historically.
All historians, especially cultural historians, hold a theory about culture, stated or not.
, has given a new meaning to the public/private split central to the history of feminism.
For decades, feminists have argued the personal is political, and explored the politics of our private lives.